November 19, 2012

The History of Batik Indonesia: Batik as Indonesia's Cultural Heritage Native

Batik is one way of making fabric. In addition, batik can refers into two things. The first is the technique of coloring cloth using wax to prevent staining part of the fabric. In the international literature, this technique is known as wax-resist dyeing. The second notion is the fabric or clothing made with these techniques, including the use of certain motifs that have uniqueness. Batik Indonesia, as the overall engineering, technology, and development-related motives and culture, UNESCO has been designated as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity since October 2, 2009.

"Javanese batik motifs Parang Damage"
The word "batik" is derived from the combination of two Javanese words "amba", meaning "writing" and "titik" means "stop".

History of batik techniques

Art staining fabric with stain barrier technique using wax is one of the ancient art form. The discovery in Egypt showed that this technique has been known since the 4th century BC, with the discovery mummy wrapping cloth which is also coated with wax to form a pattern. In Asia, a similar technique of batik is also applied in China during the T'ang Dynasty (618-907) as well as in India and Japan during the Nara Period (645-794). In Africa, such as batik technique known by the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria, and the Soninke and Wolof tribe in Senegal. In Indonesia, batik is believed to have existed since the time of Majapahit, and became very popular late eighteenth century or early nineteenth century. All produced batik is batik hand until the early twentieth century and batik cap (printed) became known after World War I or around the 1920's.
"Batik textile from Niya (Tarim Basin), China"

Although the word "batik" is derived from the Javanese, the presence of batik in Java itself is not recorded. G.P. Rouffaer found batik technique is likely introduced from India or Sri Lanka in the 6th century or the seventh. On the other hand, J.L.A. Brandes (Dutch archaeologist) and F.A. Sutjipto (historian Indonesia) believe that the tradition of batik is a native of the area such as Toraja, Flores, Halmahera and Papua. It should be noted that the area is not the area that is affected by Hinduism but known to the ancient tradition of batik making.
G.P. Rouffaer gringsing also reported that the pattern has been known since the 12th century in Kediri, East Java. He concluded that this pattern can only be formed by using the tool "canting", so he argues that the "canting" is found in Java at the time about it. Detailed carvings that resemble batik cloth worn by Prajnaparamita, the statue of the Buddhist goddess of wisdom from East Java the 13th century. Detailed dress featuring patterns of vines and delicate flowers similar to traditional Javanese batik patterns that can be found today. This suggests that making intricate batik patterns that can only be made ​​with a canting has been known in Java since the 13th century or even earlier.
"Detail engraving of cloth worn Prajnaparamita, statues from East Java the 13th century. Carving pattern of circles filled with flowers and tendrils plant complex is similar to traditional Javanese batik patterns."
"women use a canting to paint the batik with hot wax"

Legend in Malay literature of the 17th century, Sulalatus Salatin tells Admiral Hang Nadim ordered by Sultan Mahmud to sail to India to get 140 pieces of fabric litter with 40 kinds of flower patterns on each page. Being unable to fulfill the order, he made himself the fabrics were. But unfortunately shipwrecked on the way home and only able to take four pieces that make the Emperor disappointed. By some commentators, who? litter was interpreted as batik.
In European literature, batik technique was first described in the book History of Java (London, 1817) writings of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. He was a British Governor of Java during Napoleon occupied the Netherlands. In 1873 a Dutch merchant Van provide a piece of batik Rijekevorsel obtained during a visit to Indonesia to the Ethnic Museum in Rotterdam and at the beginning of the 19th century that began to reach the golden age of batik. When exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900, Indonesian batik riveting public and artists.
Since industrialization and globalization, which introduces automation techniques, new types emerged batik, known as batik cap (printed)  and batik lukis (painted), while traditional batik produced by the technique of handwriting using canting and wax called batik "tulis". Hugh Clifford recording industry in the Week in 1895 for producing batik, rainbow fabric, and telepok fabric.


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